March 18, 2016 3 Comments
The release of updated operating software for Garmin GTN-series avionics brings new capabilities to many typical general aviation pilots who fly under IFR. One of the new features is the ability to fly curved radius-to-fix (RF) legs on some instrument approaches.
Until recently, RF legs were published only on so-called RNP procedures with authorization required (AR) restrictions (for more information, see AIM 5−4−18: RNP AR Instrument Approach Procedures). But FAA has started publishing some approaches with RF legs (like the example above) that are not designated as RNP AR procedures. And, with some limitations, pilots who fly aircraft equipped with GTN-series avionics should be able to fly the RF legs used as transitions/feeder routes on those approaches. (Note that so far, these approaches don’t require RF capability–conventional transitions/feeder routes and/or radar vectors are also available.)
For more information about RF legs, see RNP Procedures and Typical Part 91 Pilots and Garmin Radius to Fix Leg Project Report here at BruceAir. For additional background on GPS navigation and RNP procedures, see also Updated AC 90-105A.
The revised STC for the GTN series (document 190-01007-A5) notes that:
GPS/SBAS TSO-C146c Class 3 Operation
…The Garmin GNSS navigation system complies with the equipment requirements of AC 90-105 and meets the equipment performance and functional requirements to conduct RNP terminal departure and arrival procedures and RNP approach procedures including procedures with RF legs subject to the limitations herein [emphasis added].
Sections 2.12 RF Legs and 2.13.1 RNP 1.0 RF Leg Types of the STC add the following information:
2.12 RF Legs
This STC does not grant operational approval for RF leg navigation for those operators requiring operational approval. Additional FAA approval may be required for those aircraft intending to use the GTN as a means to provide RNP 1 navigation in accordance with FAA Advisory Circular AC 90-105. [Note that per AC 90-105A, domestic Part 91 operations do not require additional approval–only Part 91 subpart K operations and commercial operations need LOAs or the equivalent FAA approval.]
The following limitations apply to procedures with RF legs:
- Aircraft is limited to 180 KIAS while on the RF leg
- RF legs are limited to RNP 1 procedures. RNP AR and RNP <1 are not approved
- Primary navigation guidance on RF legs must be shown on an EHSI indicator with auto-slew capability turned ON
- GTN Moving Map, EHSI Map, or Distance to Next Waypoint information must be displayed to the pilot during the RF leg when flying without the aid of the autopilot or flight director.
- The active waypoint must be displayed in the pilot’s primary field of view…
2.13.1 RNP 1.0 RF Leg Types
AC 90-105 states that procedures with RF legs must be flown using either a flight director or coupled to the autopilot.
This STC has demonstrated acceptable crew workload and Flight Technical Error for hand flown procedures with RF legs when the GTN installation complies with limitation set forth in Section 2.12 of this document. It is recommended to couple the autopilot for RF procedures, if available, but it is not required to do so. See section 4.5 of this manual to determine if this capability is supported in this installation.
At present, only a few non-AR approaches with RF legs meet the criteria in the STC and AC 90-105A. But RF legs could become more common on “standard” procedures to provide paths that offer better noise abatement, reduce airspace conflicts, and improve ATC efficiency, and pilots flying with GTN avionics (or similar navigators offered by other manufacturers) will be able to fly those procedures.