Arguments about who can log what type of flying time generate more discussion and misinformation than any other topic in aviation.
If you wonder about who can log pilot-in-command time (PIC) and second-in-command time (SIC), and if you don’t understand the key distinction between acting as PIC as logging PIC time, I strongly recommend visiting Logbooks and Logging Time at AOPA (you may need to be an AOPA member to access the page).
That page includes a discussion of the FARs, many common scenarios that spark debate, and links to additional resources that can help pilots and CFIs fill out their logbooks correctly and ensure that they meet the requirements for certificates and ratings and recent experience.
For more information about how flight instructors can log instrument approaches in IMC, see
Logging Instrument Approaches as a Flight Instructor here at BruceAir.
To read the FAA’s interpretations on the relevant regulations, visit and read the letters of interpretation on this topic from the office of the chief counsel, here.
By the way, the AOPA page also discusses electronic logbooks. The FAA has issued an advisory circular (AC 120-78: Acceptance and Use of Electronic Signatures, Electronic Recordkeeping Systems, and Electronic Manuals) that provides guidance for pilots, maintenance technicians, and others who must keep records required by the FARs.