An ILS at Night

Clear skies recently offered an opportunity to log a little night flying time and to practice an ILS at Boeing Field (KBFI). I can’t log the approach for IFR currency (I wasn’t under the hood and didn’t have a safety pilot), but it’s still good practice to fly approaches in VMC when possible to reinforce IFR procedures.

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Videos: A Couple of Instrument Approaches

I took my A36 Bonanza out for some instrument practice. Here are a couple of longish videos, with ATC, that show the RNAV (GPS) RWY 20 approach at Bremerton National (KPWT) and the ILS RWY 14R at Boeing Field (KBFI).

The aircraft is equipped with a Garmin G500 PFD/MFD and GTN 750 WAAS navigator. I use ForeFlight on an iPad Mini 5 for flight planning, charts, ADS-B weather (FIS-B) and traffic (TIS-B). A good source of information about using tablets in the cockpit is iPad Pilot News.

You can find the videos on my YouTube channel, BruceAirFlying, or watch them via the direct links below.

An ILS that Requires GPS

You can still fly IFR in the U.S. without an IFR-approved GNSS (i.e., GPS), but being “slant G” (/G in the soon-to-be obsolete FAA domestic flight plan format) increasingly offers advantages, even if you fly only conventional procedures based on ground navaids. And sometimes an IFR-approved GNSS is required to fly even an ILS.

Another example is the ILS or LOC RWY 28R at Billings, MT (KBIL)

Consider the ILS Z OR LOC Z RWY 16R approach at Reno/Tahoe International Airport (KRNO). This procedure is not an Authorization Required approach–RNP doesn’t appear in the title, and you won’t find that restrictive note on the chart.

For more information about RNP procedures, see RNP Procedures and Typical Part 91 Pilots. To learn about new required equipment notes on FAA charts, see New Equipment Required Notes.

KRNO-ILSorLOCZRwy16R

But the equipment required notes for this ILS approach include “RNAV-1 GPS required.”

KRNO-ILSorLOCZRwy16R-notes
A review of the plan view and missed approach track show why GPS is necessary to fly this procedure.

KRNO-ILSorLOCZRwy16R-Plan

First, you need GPS to fly transitions from most of initial fixes, which are RNAV waypoints marked by a star symbol.

RNAV-Waypoint-Symbol

Only LIBGE, directly north of the runway, is a non-RNAV IAF.

For example, HOBOA, KLOCK, BELBE, and WINRZ are all RNAV waypoints that serve as IAFs or IFs. Now, NORCAL Approach might provide vectors to the final approach course, but if you want to fly this procedure you should be prepared for a clearance direct to one of those fixes (see Avoiding the Vectors-to-Final Scramble).

Note also that entire missed approach track requires use of GNSS.

Two of the transitions are of special note. The “arcs” that begin at ZONBI and SLABS are radius-to-fix (RF) legs that are part of the transitions that begin at HOBOA and KLOCK. Each of those fixes is distinguished by the notes “RNP-1 GPS REQD” and “RF REQD.”

The first note means that your GPS must meet the RNP 1 standard, which is used for terminal procedures such as SIDs and STARs, the initial phases of approaches, and missed-approach segments. (For more information about RNP, see RNP Procedures and Typical Part 91 Pilots.)

Until recently, RF legs were included only in Authorization Required (AR) procedures. But as I explained in Garmin GTN Avionics and RF Legs, certain RF legs are now available if you have an appropriate GNSS navigator, updated system software, an electronic HSI, and other equipment. Some limitations on flying such RFs also apply, as described in that earlier post.

Suppose that you choose the less intimidating ILS X or LOC X RWY 16R to the same runway. A review of the notes and the plan view shows that even this conventional-looking ILS also requires RNAV 1 GPS, both to fly the transition from WINRZ and the missed approach track.

KRNO-ILSorLOCXRwy16R.jpg